Home » UPSC » UPSC Mains Philosophy syllabus-Paper 1

Paper I

Section A

  1. Plato: Theory of Ideas.
  2. Aristotle: Form, Matter and causation.
  3. Descartes: Cartesian Method and certain knowledge, God, Mind-Body Dualism.
  4. Spinoza: Substance, Attributes and Modes, Pantheism; Bondage and Freedom.
  5. Leibnitz: Monads; Theory of Perception God.
  6. Locke: Theory of Knowledge, Rejection of Innate Ideas; substance and qualities.
  7. Berkeley: Immaterialism, God, Criticism of representative Theory of Perception.
  8. Hume: Theory of knowledge, Scepticism, Self, Causality.
  9. Kant: Distinctions between synthetic and analytic judgements and between apriori and aposteriori judgements, Space, Time Categories, Possibility of Synthetic Apriori Judgements, Ideas of Reason and Antinomies; Criticism of the Proofs for the Existence of God.
  10. Hegel: Dialectical Method, Absolute Idealism.
  11. Precursors of Linguistic Analysis: Moore (Defence of common sense, Reputation of idealism), Russell (Theory of Descriptions).
  12. Logical Atomisms: Atomic Facts, Atomic sentences, Logical Constructions and Incomplete Symbols (Russell), Distinction of saying and showing (Wittgenstein).
  13. Logical Positivism: Verification theory and rejection of Metaphysics, Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  14. Phenomenology: Husserl.
  15. Existentialism: Kierkegaard, Sartre.
  16. Quine: Radical empiricism.
  17. Strawson: Theory of person.

Section B

  1. Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge, Materialism.
  2. Jainism: Theory of Reality, Saptabhangi Naya, Bondage and Liberation.
  3. Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada, Ksanikavyda, Nairatmyavada, Schools of Buddhism, Sautrantika Theory of Pramana, Ideal of Bodhisattva.
  4. Samkhya: Prakriti, Purusa, Theory of Causation, Liberation.
  5. Naya-Vaisesika: Theory of Pramana, Self, Liberation, God and Proofs for Gods Existence, Categories, Theory of Causation, Atomistic theory of Creation.
  6. Mimansa: Theory of Knowledge.
  7. Vedanta: Schools of Vedanta, Sankara, Ramaunja, Madhva (Brahman, Isvara, Atman, Jiva, Jagat, Maya, Avidya, Adhyasa, Moksa).
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